The Nobel prize is an internationally coveted award which was formed by the American physicist and inventor Alfred Nobel, in the year 1895. It is given to people who have helped humanity with their efforts in a particular field, made breakthrough inventions or have helped the world to be a better place in a significant way.
The Nobel prize is given in a total of six fields which are Economics, Peace, Literature, Chemistry, Medicine/physiology and Literature. It is to be noted that the Nobel prize cannot be shared by more than three persons. The first Nobel prize was given away in 1901.These prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden. While all these prizes are given in Stockholm, in a grand ceremony, the Nobel peace prize is always presented in Oslo, Norway.
Now let us have a look at this year’s Nobel prize winners
The Nobel prize in Physics for the year 2016 was presented to David J Thouless, F Duncan M Haldane, and to J Michael Kosterlitz.
For : They were presented with the Nobel prize in physics for the theoretical discoveries in topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.
The Nobel prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage Sir J Fraser Stoddart and to Bernard L Feringa
For : They were given the coveted prize for “the design and synthesis of molecular machines.”
This award has been given to Japan’s Yoshinori Oshumi
For : He received the award for “ his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”
The Nobel prize in literature has been presented to the famous American singer and lyricist Bob Dylan.
For: He was presented with this award for creating the new poetic expressions in the American song tradition. For the first time in the history of Nobel prizes, it has been awarded to a person related to arts.
The Canadian president Juan Manuel Santos was presented with the Nobel prize for peace.
For : He has been conferred with this honor for his relentless efforts to bring his country’s more than 50 years civil war to an end.
Two U S based Economists, Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom, have been chosen for the most coveted Sveriges Riksbank Prize in the field of Economic Sciences.
For: They are awarded the Nobel prize in economics for their outstanding contributions to contract theory.
It is interesting to know about the making of the Nobel prize. The story goes like this, Stockholm-born Alfred Nobel saw his obituary in a French newspaper while he was still happy and alive. The obituary read as “ The merchant of death is dead “ And although Alfred’s brother, Ludwig was the one who died, it led to a chain of thoughts through Alfred’s mind.
He pondered then on how the world would remember him after he is dead. This event lead to him changing his last will in the year 1895 in which he declared that all his leftover wealth( which was quite a lump sum amount) be given for the making of a series of prizes in the above specified six fields to the persons who contribute to humankind immensely with their thoughts and inventions. And thus the Nobel Prizes came into being.