Despite being blessed with the human form, we hardly have knowledge about what does our body constitute. To add value to your knowledge, we will answer ‘How Many Chromosomes Do Humans Have?’. Let’s get started!
The elongated threads of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA are known as chromosomes. Their form can be found in the nuclei of plant and animal cells and is considered to be the genetic information for making new copies of an organism. However, you must know that varied organisms have varying numbers of chromosomes such that humans had twenty-three pairs.
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All plans and species of animals and plants hold a definite and sturdy number of chromosomes. Example: A rice plant imbibes twelve where as a dog has thirty-nine.
The chromosome has two important parts known as centromeres and telomeres. The constricted region of linear chromosomes is called as the centromeres. They help in keeping the chromosome aligned properly during the difficult process of cell division. Whereas, telomeres are repetitive stretches of DNA placed at the ends of linear chromosomes. They are said to be saving the ends of chromosomes in a way similar to the way the tips of shoelaces keep them from untangling.
In the late 1800s, scientists found the cells by looking under their microscope. Although, the functions and the nature of these cell structures were not clear, the discovery itself was grand.
A better comprehension of the term was gained in the early 1900’s by researchers with the help of Thomas Hunt Morgan’s studies. He did a wonderful job by developing a link between chromosomes and inherited traits by showing that X chromosome is somehow related to the gender and color of the eye in fruit flies.
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It is true they are different which means they hold the difference in the pairs which are known as sex chromosomes. You must know that females have two X chromosomes in their cells and males hold one X and Y chromosome. Not inheriting many copies of sex chromosomes can lead to dire consequences.
Example: Taller women hold extra copies of X chromosome and are taller than average and have some mental instability. Whereas, Males found with more than one chromosome suffer from Klinefelter syndrome. It is seen as a condition where men have a tall stature and imbalanced fertility. One more syndrome found is Turner syndrome which happens due to an imbalance in the number of sex chromosomes. Females who have one chromosome are said to be suffering from Turner syndrome. They are usually short and do not face puberty, and some suffer from kidney or heart problems.
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Chromosomes are small thread-like structure which is located inside the most important object that forms the growth and activity of the cell. They are present in the Plant and Animal cells. They play a vital role in genetic diversity. They are related to DNA of the organism.