How Does a Bio Gas Plant function?

18,008 Views Updated: 12 May 2018
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How Does a Bio Gas Plant function?

Biological conversion processes involve enzymatic or bacterial breakdown by micro-organisms at relatively low temperatures. Methane or biogas is thus produced from plant, animal, human and industrial wastes. 

The waste is fed into a specially designed digester. The microbes under the influence of low-temperature heat provided from the sun decompose the wastes and produce containing a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Methane- the major component and carbon monoxide are combustible and can be used directly as gaseous fuel for cooking, heating and even for lightening purposes. It is a cheap and clean fuel and saves the trek to collect firewood and exposure to smoke in the kitchen. If latrines are attached to it then it helps village sanitation too. What makes the unit financially valuable is the cash inflow on terms of saving on firewood and production of and use of enriched manure with a high content of oxygen, phosphorous and potassium for agriculture. 

The design of biogas plants in vogue in the country is mainly based on cattle dung as feedstock. Designs for night-soil based biogas plants have also been developed and extended. Waste recycling and resource recovery systems (WRRRS) are now being developed from the ongoing community/institutional and the night-soil based biogas plants.

Biogas development program is being promoted through construction of family type and community/institutional/night-soil type biogas plants. The units come in different types and sizes but some facts have to be kept in mind while setting them up. For instance, the groundwater level has to be at least 2 meters below the surface and there must be no well or hand-pump within 15 meters of it.

Posted by: umarajputb Posts: (32) Opinions: (115) Points: 3,245 Rank: 36
Opinions (3)
Is a good technology because It will promote the agriculture and also reduced environmental hazardous on waste disposal and also bring some income and employment opportunity to the serious minded people I also want this in Nigeria too.

Biogas is the only that will not only save petroleum cost but also promote agriculture.


Bio gas refers to a mix of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in  the absence of oxygen. Bio gas is a renewable energy source and that is why we need bio gas plants.  Organic input materials such as fodder, fats or sludge can be fed to the bio gas plant. Manure and dung are also fed into the bio gas plant. The structure and function of bio gas plant makes it easier to produce bio gases. There is a digester which is heated to approx 38-40 degrees and the substrate is decomposed by the micro organisms under dark and the absence of oxygen. The final product of this fermentation is bio gas with methane. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows bio gas to be used as a fuel which can be used for heating purpose like cooking. It can be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the energy of the gas into electricity and heat. The bio gas plant functions as a heat and electricity provider. Bio gas can be compressed the same way as natural gas is compressed and CNG is made which is used to power motor vehicles. Therefore, power is one of the functions of bio gas plant. The structure and function of bio gas plan t is such that it can be produced and used continually. Organic material will grow and it will be converted. The organic material will grow again and it will be converted again. The process will keep on moving in a cycle. This is why bio gas is a renewable source of energy.  Bio gas plant functions as a huge source of transformation. Bio gas is estimated to have the potential to replace around seventeen percent of vehicle fuel in the United Kingdom according to Wikipedia.

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