The Soviet Union was formed in 1917 following the ouster of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II by the Bolshevik revolutionaries led by Vladimir Lenin.
Russia formally joined the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.
The USSR was reckoned as a ‘Super Power’ until it started disintegrating in the late 1980s and the flag of the Soviet Union flew for the last time over Kremlin on December 25, 1991, after delegates from 11 republics – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan met in Alma-Ata and declared their decision to split up from the USSR.
Earlier, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the three Baltic republics had announced their independence from Soviet Russia.
The primary reason behind the disintegration was the large number of drastic reforms implemented by President Mikhail Gorbachev after assuming office in March 1985, who enjoyed proximity with the USA-led capitalist bloc and lacked the political acumen of his predecessors such as Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev, Andropov and Brezhnev.
Gorbachev resigned as the President of Soviet Union on Dec. 25, 1991, bringing a rather serene and calm end to a long, petrifying and often gory epoch in the global history.
Many political scientists feel there were manifold reasons behind the fall of the Soviet Union, including ethnic disagreements, short of support for the concept of communism and economic plights created by focus on nuclear arms and cold war with the USA and even the military aggression in Afghanistan.
In spite of the reforms initiated by Gorbachev such as Glasnost and Perestroika, Soviet Union was never able to restructure and reconstruct itself as a state.
Russia lost much of its global importance as a geopolitical and economic power after the dissolution of the USSR, especially due to the exit of Ukraine.