When India got freedom from the British rule in 1947, there was uncertainty about its future.
A question was being raised everywhere "Will India Survive?".
Then newly-born nation was struggling hard for its survival. There were plenty of problems. Besides the dissension between the Communists and Hindu extremists, there were several issues which needed to be solved such as accommodation of 8,000,000 refugees, employment opportunity, a sense of citizenship and integration of five hundred princely states.
Now, when India has gained recognition as an independent nation a question is being asked everywhere "Will India emerge as a Superpower by 2020?".
India is the first nation in the world where the unity is not based on a single language and religion. India is an inspiration for the largely poor, still divided and formerly colonized countries of Africa and the Middle East to follow the path of a democratic political system.
Considering the spectacular success of India in the short-term, its impressive growth rates over the last 10 years, and it's crucial success in the field of information technology has prompted a new question "Will India become a superpower in 2020?".
Though it is not impossible, it is not so easy also. Still, there are lots of challenges in the country which need to be resolved first to fulfill the dream of becoming a superpower in 2020. There are problems of poverty, unemployment, internal law and order situation, racism, Naxalite issues and much more.
Poverty- A major barrier to becoming a fully developed nation
Poverty is a major barrier which is preventing India from becoming a fully developed nation. Several anti-poverty policies have been launched since the 1950s, which eventually only became effective after 20 years of its implementation.
In India, the poverty is measured by a poverty line which is possibly one of the most disputed and constantly attacked measure across the world.
The statistics of poverty in India
• Fifty percent of Indian do not have proper shelter
• Seventy percent of Indian do not have decent toilet facility
• Thirty-five of families do not have access to nearby water source
• Eighty-five villages do not have a secondary school, while more than 40% of these same villages need proper roads.
As per the fifth annual employment-unemployment poll at the national level, it was found that around 77% of the households have no regular wage or salaried person. The survey reported that the unemployment rate was expected to be 5% at the all-India level under the UPS (Usual Principal Status) approach.
It is true that racism is prevalent in the world's no.1 superpower country the United States but racism is one of the major hindrances for the unity of any nation. Racism exists to a great degree in India. People from North-East India are referred as 'Chinki' by the people of their own country.
Moreover, in recent years the country has witnessed several deadly incidences as a result of racism. For example, early this year a Tanzanian woman, who was studying in Bengaluru, had been allegedly assaulted and paraded naked by an angry mob outside the city.
At present, the Naxalite problem is one of the major challenges for India. A large number of domestic terrorist groups exist in India. The Naxalites has extended their presence even in the national capital New Delhi and to the forest and hilly regions of northern states of India.
The Naxalite movement has penetrated the domains of policy makers, judiciary system, media, youth organization, human rights etc.
Apart from the aforesaid internal issues, India also needs to overcome the major global issues to become a super power-
1. Disputes with neighboring countries- India should settle down all disputes with its neighboring countries. For example border dispute with Pakistan, Tamil problem with Sri Lanka, a constitutional crisis in Nepal, and much more.
2. Influence of China: India must offset the influence of China over its neighboring countries such as Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
3. Organization's membership: India should be the member of important global organizations, namely Nuclear Supplier Group, UNSC etc.
4. Maintain friendly relation with P5+1: India needs to maintain friendly relations with all P5+1 members, which include United States, Russia, United Kingdom, China, France, and Germany.
5. Economic: India should be self-dependent in Space and defense technology. Additionally, required long-term energy security.
6. Security: India needs strong border security- air, land, and maritime- effectively against all state and non-state challenges.