Our planet's interior, Core, is the most inhospitable layer for humans. It pounds the depths of everything else that you see around. Core, Mantle, Crust form the three layers of the earth, inner core, and outer core being Earth's inner layers.
Many geologists believe that as the planet started to cool, denser and heavier materials sank deep inside and brought the lighter ones above. Let's discuss the same in detail.
Mapping of earth's exteriors and interiors have been possible due to the studies revolving around seismic waves and other laboratory experiments. Characteristics like timing and strength of these waves have been recorded over time to give us a definite picture of what's deep within. Seismic waves are the ones that travel through the earth as a result of earthquake or explosion etc.
The order goes from outside of the earth to its inside:
This forms the outermost layer of the earth where the marine and land life exists. It's the layer we live on. Ocean crust forms water, and the continental crust forms land. Crust goes almost a hundred km deep inside. It comprises of the sedimentary rocks along with metamorphic, silicates and igneous. The crust is basically divided into gigantic tectonic plates. When these collide, it leads to an earthquake. Crust and upper mantle form the lithosphere.
(Image Courtesy: Structure Of the Earth)
This is the layer in between the crust and the outer core. Mantle extends to a depth of almost 3000 km being the thickest and the widest section on earth. This layer is said to be rich in iron and magnesium along with other molten rocks called as magma. There are different temperatures varying the depth as it goes. The upper mantle known as the asthenosphere is 200 km thick containing the heavy weight hard rocks. But the inner mantle is constituted of semi molten rocks that are soft, and they melt. Movement of the plates is dependent upon the mantle. The greatest temperature difference of the upper and inner mantle creates their flow.
(Image Courtesy: Slide Player)
Earth's inner layer comprises of:
This layer of the earth comprises of super heated molten lava that's mostly nickel and iron. The layer extends to a 2260 km depth. All the metals inside are in their liquid form. As the earth rotates, it causes the outer core also to spin the entire liquid producing earth's magnetic field.
The inner core is around 1440 km towards the earth's center; It's the hottest layer of earth. The temperature is so high that some scientists believe this layer could be solid due to extreme pressures.
Crust is the widely studied layer till now. If one could manage to reach deep within the earth is only when they'll be able to study more. However, there are several tools that helped humans to explore what is inside the earth's core.
(Image Courtesy: Extreme Tech)
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(Featured Image Courtesy: CK-12)