Proteins are the final product which comes out of the decoding process in the body. They play an extremely important role in almost every biological process. From division to signaling of the cells, it acts as a crucial part. All the proteins are made of 20 amino acids. However, each protein has different and particular suited job.
The sequence of amino acid in each protein is different. Therefore it makes the protein unique to perform different tasks inside the cell. They are the building blocks in each cell and works as a key molecule.
Steps Involved In Making Proteins
Proteins are made in a similar two-step process in all organisms. First DNA is transcripted into RNA, and then RNA is translated into our very own protein. All the organisms almost make the proteins in the same way. There is an ‘instruction manual’ for the construction of proteins that is called Gene Expression. The manual has two stages; transcription and translation.
#1. Transcription: Cell identification from start to end of a gene is in structure to read the sequence between the order of A, C, G and T bases within the gene. A mRNA molecule or molecule message is produced that helps in echoing the sequence of the gene. In most of the cases, mRNA appears to be similar to a single-stranded piece of the DNA. This process is known as the transcription and happens when RNA copy (transcript) is produced from a sequence of DNA.
#2. Translation: The start of building a chain of amino acids or proteins takes place once a ribosome receives the mRNA molecule. The instruction within the mRNA matches exactly. The mRNA sequence is read by the ribosome as a series of three-base codons or chunks. Each chunk or codon is responsible to tell the protein-making machinery about what amino acid should be added next to create protein.
As a matter of fact, each codon or chunk has the same ‘meaning’ in every cell throughout the life. Every cell follows the same rules to create a new protein every time. For example, the chunk or codon AGA is a signal to insert the amino acid arginine to an on-process protein- not considering the growing protein is a human cell or bacterial cell.
Final Shape Of Protein
(Image Courtesy: Interactive Biology)
Proteins are capable of attaining their final shape without any energy input once the stringing of their constituent amino acid is in place. The precise function of the protein totally depends on the way it is exposed to the surface with molecules. All proteins need to bind together to complete their particular tasks.
Proteins need to be understood properly in order to improve the body function. If you have any other query regarding this feel, free to reach us or comment below.
(Featured Image Courtesy: Science Museum)