There are different kind’s rules that are followed in different states. We can just define government as a system by which any territory is controlled. In simple words, Government includes the collection of legal and political institutions that controls the rules and regulations of the people of the society and the people outside the society. It is very complex to understand this in terms of politics and legal language. So let us make it simpler and understand the various forms of government in common people language.
The first thing that we need to know is who the one who defined various forms of government were and what was the criterion of this division? There was a Greek philosopher of the 4th century, Aristotle who gave his philosophy for three basic forms of government which were the monarchy, aristocracy, and polity. This categorization was basically based on the number of person ruling. In Monarchy, the power was limited to only one person. In an aristocracy, the power was limited to one or more classes of society. In polity, a certain group of people collectively makes the decisions. These were only the classifications that suited the people of that time. With the change in time, there are many changes in the classification let us discuss them in detail:
Monarchy: This form of government was the most used one in the early 20th century. The rule type in this government is a rule by the supreme king or queen. There used to be only one head of a state and they used to rule until they die. Simultaneously, the first born take up the charge after the death of king or queen. Here all the rights of the public land belonged to the king only.
Democracy: For me, this is the best form of government available today. It is based on the constitution and along with that provides full freedom to the citizens of the country to organize various political parties and held elections. Everybody is having a fair chance to fight and win the elections. Basically, there are two forms of this type including parliamentary and presidential. As the name suggests, the power basically belongs to parliament in the parliamentary type of government. On the other hand, in the presidential form of government, a chief executive is elected by the voters and he is independent of the legislature.
Dictatorship: The concept of dictatorship government is basically ruled by a dictator who is usually any military leader and whole power is confined to him only. The main duty of the dictator is to maintain all the government behaviors and operations. As such, there is no specific rule of law but there are certain beliefs and ideas that everybody needs to follow. Somewhere and somehow, this form of government results in some kind of dominance and even if the leader is wrong, nobody is supposed to question his decisions.
Constitutional Government: The most common form of government used today is the constitutional government. It doesn’t matter which party is ruling over the country, the basic framework of rules provided by the constitution has to be followed by all. There is a fair system of choosing the right representative and everybody is having the right to vote. The government is elected directly or indirectly by the common people of the country.
Federal Systems: India along with the United States is good examples of federal systems. In a federal system, though the sub-areas or subdivisions are having more powers according to the constitution. The central government and the state governments work independently but they are somehow related to each other. Some rules are restrictions are according to the state governments and another rule by the central governments. This system is very successful in those countries which are geographically very large.
Confederations: In confederations, the central government is there but it is weaker than the state or provincially government. All the major powers of the state belong to the state government such as print money, military force maintenance and many other national powers. Confederations are having both the advantages and disadvantages. If we compare this to the unitary system, then passing of any new law is a very complex process here. Firstly it has to be passed by the state government and then it needs the permission of the Centre government too.
Anarchy: The word anarchy means ‘without rulers’. The word itself indicates a lot about the type of government. This form of government is not practical in many states as it indicates that there are no laws followed in the state and practically rules and regulations are almost followed in every country. There were many countries in the past which tried adopting anarchy but the results were not fruitful. So this type of government is very uncommon as this is having very severe disadvantages.